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Rhabdomyolysis is a rare, under-reported condition caused by destruction of skeletal muscle cells that can eventually lead to necrosis of the muscle fibers, renal failure, and even death. A literature review is used to evaluate the symptoms, complications, diagnosis, and treatment of exertional rhabdomyolysis to raise awareness for all allied health professionals, and most specifically, athletic trainers as they are often the first to evaluate the athlete. Findings include: (1) most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis occur in military personnel, long-distance runners, and collegiate athletes after completing extensive workouts; (2) the most common symptoms associated with this condition include severe muscle soreness, muscle swelling or weakness, and hemoglobinuria; and (3) complications that may result in severe cases of this condition include cardiac arrest, compartment syndrome, and commonly acute renal failure. The literature establishes Rhabdomyolysis as clinically diagnosed by measuring the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). Normal CK levels for males are 38 - 174 units/L and for females are 96 - 140 units/L, but levels can reach as high as 100,000 units/L Rhabdomyolysis is often diagnosed after levels reach 5000 units/L. Once diagnosed, individuals are often admitted into the hospital for intravenous fluid hydration and electrolyte monitoring to reach equilibrium.
Fibromyalgia is a debilitating disease which causes wide-spread bodily pain and fatigue. The goal of our research was to discover the effect that fibromyalgia has on the body, especially within athletics. A literature review of online articles regarding fibromyalgia was performed. Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and the possibility of physical participation of athletes who are affected by fibromyalgia were investigated. We expected to find that with proper management, some athletes are able to return fully to athletics without limitations. There is currently not a significant amount of research regarding athletes with fibromyalgia and whether they are able to participate in physical activity or not, which is what we were aiming to discover.
It is hypothesized that patients in the pre-diabetic condition of type II diabetes can reduce their risk of developing the disease by using exercise and a healthy diet. This study hypothesizes that with moderate exercise (according to ACSM moderate exercise standards) and the correct nutritional balance, blood glucose levels will decrease and become more stable. Each participant exercised three times a week for one hour using aerobic and resistance training. Before starting their exercise program, subjects attended a Diabetes Education class to educate the subject regarding management of the pre-diabetic condition. Each client was given a blood glucose monitor to test blood glucose levels at home three times a week to see if blood glucose levels decreased and became more stable.
Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) is a common ailment caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), 95% of American adults have been infected with EBV. In 35-50% of EBV cases as a young adult or adolescent, the infection results in IM. Since the incidence of EBV in the young adult and adolescent population is so high, it is common to see high school and college athletes develop IM. It can be dangerous for athletes with IM to compete due to the enlargement of the spleen. The purpose of this project was to review the medical literature to discover specific liver complications of IM and to identify safe return-to-participation guidelines for athletes. IM is a very common virus that effects the young athletic population and can have serious complications especially when at risk for contact during sporting competitions. By determining safe return to participation guidelines, we will be able to reduce injury secondary to IM.
Headaches do not often necessitate a doctor’s referral, but when symptoms are debilitating, exceptions can be made. Thunderclap headaches are extremely rare and are defined as an excruciating headache with an instantaneous onset, stemming from a variety of cerebral manifestations. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the case of an 18 year old, female DIII volleyball athlete, who presented with a severe, acute headache following a timed one-mile run on the first day of practice. The athlete reported pain as 10/10 on the pain scale, with ptosis in the right eye, and extreme light sensitivity. Symptoms continued with rest, which prompted referral to the Emergency Room (ER). A Computed Tomography (CT) Scan was taken and was normal. Over the next month she had three similar attacks, with symptoms never resolving between episodes. Numerous diagnostics, including brain and eye MRI’s and a lumbar puncture were normal. She was then referred to a headache specialist out of state where the diagnosis of a Thunderclap Headache was made. The ptosis in the right eye was not explained. This case presents the opportunity to evaluate how the typically benign headache may be much more complicated and to pay close attention to abnormal symptoms.
Asthma is a common respiratory disease among athletes today. Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA) is defined as the narrowing of the airway in the bronchial trees after five to seven minutes of strenuous activity. Athletic trainers are faced with the prevention, recognition and early treatment of those who are affected by this disease. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the most current research on recognition, management and treatment techniques utilized. Studies showed that athletes are able to compete with EIA if they are able to successfully manage it by using fast-acting inhalers, or control their symptoms with topical medications. Beta-adrenergic medications such as fast-acting inhalers work in times of distress to relax bronchial smooth muscle and dilate the airway so the athlete can breathe. Slower acting inhalers work to prevent attacks when taken four hours before exercise. This information will help athletic trainers recognize, manage and ultimately decrease the frequency of exercise induced attacks in competitive athletes.
Observations of athletes in athletic settings have revealed that some athletes may exaggerate or fake injuries/illnesses to avoid participating in athletic events. Little research has been done on this topic, yet information has been extrapolated from other relevant studies. The purpose of this study was to identify specific factors that contribute to athletes faking injuries or illnesses. The Athletic Injury/Illness Survey was distributed to the winter sports athletes at a Division III university these data were analyzed to help determine the best strategies for obtaining maximal effort from the athletes both as individuals and as a team. Results are presented and discussion regarding application is discussed.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a gram-positive bacterium that is spread through direct contact and has a high prevalence in the athletic population. It may be found among individuals who demonstrate poor personal hygiene (not showering/bathing, sharing razors, etc.) and among high contact sports such as wrestling and football. It is important for individuals and health care providers to recognize signs and symptoms of S. aureus compared to other skin conditions. Proper diagnosis includes observing skin lesions followed by the physician obtaining cultures. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is an antibiotic-resistant strain of S. aureus which causes infection in healthy individuals as well as those with compromised immune systems. Determining the best way to treat S. aureus through antibiotics is an area of continued research and debate. Treatment includes appropriate drainage, antibiotics, and proper hygiene. Prevention measures can be taken to lessen the spread of the bacteria and decrease the chances of future outbreaks. Our literature review evaluated the history of S. aureus and MRSA, identified differences between different forms of bacterial infections and provided evidence on proper prevention and treatment protocols. This information will be valuable to health care providers as well as the general public.
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