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Spoken Language vs. Written LanguageVerbal DeliveryNonverbal Delivery
“Some people have the mistaken notion that a speech is an essay on its feet” (Crawford, Croft, & Tomlinson, 2007, p. 44). These people would no doubt create very boring speeches that their audience would find confusing. When creating your speech, you have to carefully consider the differences between written language and spoken language.
One of these differences is structural in nature. When you read a written work, the separation of ideas is made clear through the use of paragraph spacing and punctuation. How do you get these structural elements across when all you have is your voice? You use a group of tools called “connectives.” These include transitions, signposts, internal previews, and internal reviews.
Transitions connect the previous idea to the next idea at the moment where you move from one to the other. These usually appear at major section changes, such as the introduction into the body, main point to main point, and body to conclusion.Signposts include specific words, such as “first,” “second,” and “next.” They are a very clear indication of a switch in topic. Internal previews and reviews provide clarity for large main points by previewing or reviewing the subpoints within that main point “Some people have the mistaken notion that a speech is an essay on its feet” (Crawford, Croft, & Tomlinson, 2007, p. 45-46).
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