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Microfracture surgery has a high profile due to the numerous procedures that have been noted with players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) within the last several years. Microfracture surgery is the first line of therapy for most focal, traumatic chondral defects, which are defects in the articular cartilage that surrounds the knee bone. A review of the literature revealed that articular cartilage cannot repair itself because of the lack of blood supply, so the surgical procedure must be done. The surgical procedure itself is fairly quick, but the result of the procedure depends directly on the rehabilitation that must follow the surgery. This paper includes a brief explanation of the surgical procedure and a five phase rehabilitation protocol that can be followed by patients with a full thickness chondral defect of the femoral condyle in the knee. Each phase includes goals and specific criteria that must be met in order for the next phase to commence.
A policy and procedure manual was developed for the Columbus Special Olympics medical volunteers to ensure the safety and proper care of injured participants. The Capital University Student Athletic Training Club (CUSATC) offers Student Athletic Trainers as medical volunteers for the Columbus Special Olympics Basketball Tournaments. These tournaments involve school age, adult, and women’s teams with multiple divisions based on ability. During these games, it is highly possible for the athletes to become injured to the extent that first aid response is needed. A uniform standard of care is needed for these potential injuries. As a group, we developed and implemented a policy and procedure manual for the medical volunteers. The development of this manual incorporates the aspects of prevention, evaluation, treatment, and organization which correspond to five of the six domains of athletic training. As a result of creating the policy and procedure manual, a universal standard of care was developed successfully for the medical volunteers for the Special Olympics. Having a policy and procedure manual in place as a reference for medical volunteers helps ensure that the highest quality of care is provided for participating athletes.
Low back pain is one of the most prevalent complaints among jobs that require physical labor. Low back pain can be debilitating. In the job setting, bending over for long periods of time, picking up heavy objects and walking all day can often lead to low back pain. The purpose of our project is to bring awareness to the general public about the causes of low back pain and ways to prevent and treat the pain. We developed a pamphlet about the topic of low back pain. We provide information on low back pain in general and ways to prevent, treat, and strengthen the low back. We distributed these pamphlets to local businesses whose employees require physical labor. We also talked to the employees and answer any questions they may have. We hope that our actions help to educate employees.
The presence of large forces placed on the pelvic region makes it a susceptible place for injury. Athletic pubalgia refers to pain caused by a variety of injuries that should not be confused with sports hernias. In extreme or chronic cases, when physical therapy does not prove to be an effective treatment, tears in the adductor muscle or rectus abdominis muscle are present and require surgical intervention. One surgery that was researched, the pelvic floor repair, reattaches tears in the rectus abdominis to the pubis using internal sutures. Recent studies and literature have chronicled advancements in surgery and rehabilitation of this injury. Rehabilitation can begin immediately after the surgical procedure in the form of walking. Walking, pool exercises, stretching, and massage can begin as soon as one-week post-surgery. High performance athletes can be rehabilitated within 3-4 weeks and can return to play with much less pain than before surgery. These advancements in treatment have changed a once debilitating chronic injury into an easily managed injury with surgery and rapid rehabilitation.
Westerville South High School provides elementary lessons that build the foundation for a future in the athletic training profession. Emphasis is placed on discussion of the athletic training domains of care and prevention of injuries, treatment, and professionalism. Visitation to the collegiate setting prior to admission to a collegiate Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) allows Athletic Training Student Aides (ATSA) to better determine whether they want to major in athletic training in college. Allowing ATSAs to view a collegiate ATEP while still in high school can make a future decision regarding a career in athletic training easier. Ensuring the exposure of ATSAs to the principle domains of athletic training during their visit is vital to their comprehension of the ATEP and to determining whether they would be interested in the program. ATEPs who experience the collegiate athletic training setting during high school are better prepared to make a career choice about their future in athletic training. Observation of a collegiate ATEP should be highly recommended to ATSAs considering majoring in athletic training in college.
The radial nerve travels from the brachial plexus in the armpit and spirals down the back of the arm to the outer elbow, where it passes in front of the elbow near the lateral epichondyle and radial head. Radial nerve entrapment can be one the of the most inhibiting pathologies related to activities of daily living because the nerve supplies motor control to the extensor muscles of the forearm, controlling the wrist, thumb, and fingers. This study focuses on possible etiologies, surgery, and rehabilitation of radial nerve entrapment to develop a basic understanding of current surgical techniques and the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program. This research study analyzed five research articles and four books. The expected findings of this research project explain how radial nerve decompression surgery affects the rehabilitation program for an individual. I address the evaluation of radial nerve entrapment, the surgical technique used to relieve this pathology, and the best rehabilitation program that allows full return to activity. I highlight various exercises and treatment options to progress the rehabilitation.
Proper hydration is important for all athletes. Each year athletes die due to dehydration. Dehydration affects the body’s ability to regulate temperature, properly activate muscles, as well as decreases function in several organs. Athletes and coaches do not take hydration status into account before, during, and after physical activities. More information needs to be available to athletes and coaches regarding the importance of hydration, as well as the risks, symptoms, and effects of dehydration on physical activity. In order for a body to maintain proper hydration, a person needs to drink 30ml of water per kg of their body weight per day. Athletes must drink more to make up for loss due to sweating. For every pound they lose during physical activity they should drink about 33 oz of water to replenish their hydration. We assess the importance of proper hydration in athletes and inform athletes monitoring hydration using a urine color chart. Athletes are informed of the benefits of proper hydration and learn how to prevent dehydration by recognizing signs and symptoms and knowing how much water they should consume per day and during activity. Brochures will be made and distributed to coaches and athletes at local high schools.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tangles of abnormal and badly shaped blood vessels, both arteries and veins. They have a higher rate of bleeding than normal blood vessels because of the poor formation. AVMs can occur anywhere in the body, but I specifically speak of brain AVMs. With brain AVMs there is more damaged caused by the bleeding, therefore these AVMs are more dangerous and are a special concern. Brain AVMs are rare and occur in less than 1% of the general population. The specific cause of such malformations is unknown, but some scientists think it is related to the development of blood vessels in-utero and could possibly be present before birth. Signs and symptoms of AVMs tend to appear in people between the ages of 20 and 40, but are not limited to those ages.
The acromioclavicular joint (AC) is a highly mobile and unstable joint. Because of the instability, AC joint subluxations (dislocations) are a common injury among the active population. Causes of AC joint subluxations are always due to trauma, usually resulting from a fall onto an outstretched arm. Often, people suffering AC joint subluxations are athletes or manual laborers whose recovery time is limited. Many surgical procedures for AC joint dislocations exist; however, no gold standard has been set. This study was conducted to examine multiple surgical procedures and to select the procedure that offers optimal recovery time and stability. Scholarly articles involving different AC joint reconstructions were reviewed and analyzed. From this process we selected the procedure that offers the patient optimal recovery and stabilization (prevention of reoccurring subluxations). We selected an arthroscopic technique using a double flip button. We chose this AC joint reconstruction procedure due to the high satisfaction rating from the patients who received this treatment. This treatment is fairly new, with promising results for the patients who undergo this surgery procedure.
The instability of the knee makes it a susceptible place for injury, and an uncommon force injury is a patellar tendon rupture. When the patellar tendon becomes unattached from the tibial tubercle on the quadriceps tendon, surgery is the only method for repair. When the patellar tendon is ruptured, surgery is the only option for a patient to return to full range of motion and regain full neural and motor control. Many surgeries that were researched involve reattachment of the patellar tendon, done in stages, in which grafts are used to lengthen the torn tendon. Recent studies have shown alternative methods for reattachment and the advancements in rehabilitation of this injury. Patellar tendon ruptures can be treated with various types of surgery, such as muscle grafts, PDS cord, wire, using sutures as anchors, and with or without augmentation. The average length of therapy is about six months, with progress to movement from four days up to two weeks after surgery and full flexion around six to eight weeks following surgery. The continuously improved surgical ways to treat this injury are making the rehabilitation process speed up.
The Jones fracture is a fracture of the proximal part of the fifth metatarsal of the foot. It is commonly caused by rotation on a fixed foot. The most common sports this injury is seen in are football, basketball, and soccer. Conservative treatment offers soft casting while non weight bearing or surgical treatment through intramedullary screw fixation is used if the fracture is displaced. The effects of surgery and a rehabilitation protocol are presented. Much research has been done to be able to explain the various treatment techniques for a Jones fracture. A full rehabilitation protocol is developed after all research is complete. Findings reveal how to rehabilitate a Jones fracture after surgical intervention. After completing a rehabilitation protocol for a Jones fracture an athlete can return to play.
We worked with the Capital University Curves Club to establish proper technique and safety while using equipment in the University weight room. The members of this club are Capital University students. Most students, especially female students may feel overwhelmed when using a weight room at a university because of male sports teams that typically use the weight room. There is also a lack of exposure to the equipment that is used in the weight room and students may not understand how to properly lift the weights with correct techniques. Through this project proper technique was demonstrated to ensure no injuries were sustained while weight training as well as the benefits of using certain equipment. Through previous classes such as Principles of Weight Training and Conditioning we have gained knowledge of types of lifts and how to properly conduct these exercises with proper technique. Benefits and risks of each exercise are discussed from previous research and reference to the NSCA Principles of Weight Training and Conditioning textbook. We expect to find that general knowledge of weight training procedures is inadequate and we hope to see participant feel more confident in being able to use a weight training facility. Through use of Capital’s weight training facility we will hold an information session regarding how to use the equipment in a safe and positive way.
The profession of athletic training is not always well understood by the public and many times is underappreciated. For our Advocacy Project we presented to a middle school setting and discussed what it means to be an Athletic Trainer in an attempt to increase awareness and understanding of the profession. In our presentation, we described the five domains of athletic training according to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association. These domains include injury prevention, evaluation and diagnosis, immediate and emergency care, treatment and rehabilitation, and organizational and professional health and wellbeing. We conducted hands on activities with the students including taping exercises and rehabilitation techniques. Younger students are uneducated about athletic training and have little understanding of the profession. Our hope is that we enlightened and inspired young students to become interested in the field of athletic training.
As the number of participants in athletics increases, the number of injuries has increased as well. According to Nationwide Children's Hospital Sports Medicine sports injuries are the second leading cause of emergency room visits for children and adolescents, and the second leading cause of injuries in school. Because of the rate of injury has increased, an injury prevention program could be used to avoid these injuries. The purpose of this research is to create an injury prevention program with an emphasis on speed and agility. Participants learn exercises that focus on good posture that include strength and core stability as well as dynamic balance of both the upper and lower body. This is monitored through the program and the injury status of the participant is recorded. We predict that those who participate in an injury prevention program before their seasons are less likely to suffer from sports-related injuries during their respective sports. The main goal of this program is to teach young athletes proper technique in an athletic setting to decrease the number of sports related injuries.
A femur fracture can be a major and devastating injury for an individual. In this project, the surgery techniques and rehabilitation for femur fractures were studied. In order to further understanding, a review of previous published articles was completed. A couple of different techniques exist for femur fractures. The surgical technique is dependent upon several factors such as the location. A common technique is intrameduallary nailing for a fracture to the shaft of the femur. After surgery the next important step is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation consists of inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Early weight bearing has proven to be beneficial to these patients. Rehabilitation is important for the recovery and return to functional activity level. Potential setbacks for these patients are abnormal gait, quadriceps femoris muscle weakness and loss of range of motion. By examining the surgical techniques and rehabilitation for femur fractures, I then developed my own safe and productive rehabilitation protocol.
The Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury that is a result of sport or everyday living. There are two types of Achilles tendon surgery. The first is the open surgery in which the surgeon makes a single large incision in the back of the leg. The other is the percutaneous surgery, in which several small incisions are made rather than one large incision. Researchers argue that this procedure is easier and the least invasive. While surgery is probably the best method for fixing a ruptured Achilles, there are other ways. When compared with immobilization, surgery provides less chance that the tendon will rupture again and offers a shorter recovery period. However, there is greater risk for wound complications in surgery. The research shows that both the non-operative and the surgical routes are effective, though surgery might be more effective. Surgery does have its risks, but so do the other methods. The possibility of re-injury is always there so the overall process is important.
Laminectomy of the lumbar spine is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the spinous processes and lamina from one or more vertebrae. It is most commonly performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots resulting from a herniated disk. Also, a laminectomy may be done to treat compression fracture, dislocation of vertebrae, or a spinal cord tumor. The purpose of this research is to explain possible etiologies, pathology, surgical techniques, and ways to explain the procedure to athletes. Included in this presentation will be illustrations of the surgical technique as well as indications, contraindications, possible surgical complications, and set-backs during rehabilitation. Also we develop a protocol for rehabilitation starting immediately post-op continuing until the athlete is fully rehabilitated to full participation. Exploring this surgical technique has provided experience in developing a rehabilitation program for lumbar, pelvic and lower abdominal injuries. Further, it provides better understanding of the continuum of patient care beginning with treatment and rehabilitation, including the possibilities of surgical intervention.
Our intention is to design an informational pamphlet to inform others about the positive effects of an exercise program on overall health. The pamphlet will be distributed to the members of the CapFit program. Our pamphlet focuses on disease prevention associated with regular exercise. The diseases we discuss include diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and pulmonary diseases. The pamphlet briefly describes each disease and demonstrates how being physically active can help to prevent, or even reverse, their effects on the body. We include a sample exercise program with ideas for beginning an exercise regimen. The pamphlet provides information on a proper warm up and cool down. The purpose is to demonstrate how having an active lifestyle can lead to healthier living. We advocate exercise as a necessary part of an overall healthy lifestyle. Prevention of many of these diseases is key, and there is a simple form of prevention, a little exercise can make all the difference.
Most shoulder repairs are performed with some kind of open arthroplasty, but not all patients need such an in depth procedure. Allograft procedures are less invasive and will provide the stability without jeopardizing any of the surrounding muscles. To differentiate between areas where the allograft is taken from and which of those work best with the rotator cuff or the humeral head. A review of published literature was used to explore the different means of allograft origins. Sources were found by searching various databases such as Medline and pertinent online journals. For glenoid resurfacing the most compatible replacement is a meniscal allograft. It is a fit similar to the cartilage that was there prior to injury. Allograft repair for rotator cuff muscles comes from a freeze-dried human acellular matrix. This preserves vascularity, yet reduces the risk of transmitting disease. There are many options for glenohumeral instability; however, there are fewer explored options for the reconstruction of irreparable rotator cuff tears.
Total Hip Replacement (THR) is now a common procedure. Even though the individual is restored to a functional state there are potential lifestyle changes associated with hip replacement. Osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis contribute to failure of THR. Researchers have explored ways to make the procedure more efficient, easier on the patient, and more likely to be a success. Research articles provide insights on the recent advances of THR. These advances are substantial and promising for those who receive the procedure in the future. I discuss the importance of ensuring a successful and timely recovery for the patient along with ensuring the highest quality of life possible.
Protein-rich plasma (PRP) injections are becoming more prevalent in the surgical world, especially in orthopedics. They can be used to help increase the healing process by introducing more binding sites for leukocytes, histamines, and other substances that are involved with the healing process. PRP also increases cell proliferation, which is an increase in the number of cells due to cell divisions. It has been used to treat tendon, muscle, and joint injuries, and has shown promising results. Many people are still skeptical about the use of PRP because it has also had high failure rates in the past and many believe that there are psychological factors that play a role in patients perceiving a quicker recovery and less pain. Through a literary analysis, articles were reviewed to compare results from various trials, and to look at the different rehabilitation protocols following the injections. It is recommended to try protein-rich plasma injections prior to surgical intervention, as it is much less evasive and allows a quicker return to play. PRP should be used in conjunction with conservative rehabilitation as well, to maintain strength and range of motion, which could be causing the pain.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears are one of the most prevalent injuries in female athletes, especially at the high school level. Many factors contribute to this, especially anatomical factors. The most common sports that see ACL tears are basketball and soccer. This project focused on introducing some exercises and sport-specific skills to help prevent an ACL tear in high school athletes. Through literature reviews and demonstrations, an ACL prevention program was started at a local high school. It is important to educate young athletes on ways to properly do sport specific skills in order to decrease their risk of tearing the ACL.
Due to repetitive overhead motions, typically from sports, it is common for patients to sustain disruption to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow. Tommy John surgery, also known as ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction, is a medical practice employed to correct this deficiency. A tendon from elsewhere in the body is used to replace the damaged elbow ligament. Prior to Tommy John surgery, a damaged ulnar collateral ligament was viewed as career ending. More recently, when an injury is sustained at the ulnar collateral ligament, patients seek Tommy John surgery for ligament reconstruction. Literature review was used to explore this issue. It appears patients who receive Tommy John Surgery not only are able to regain full function, but many are able to return to pre-injury competition level. An injury previously perceived as serious and career ending has become fixable and can extend the career of overhead athletes. At this time, risks do exist; however, the benefits outweigh the risks.
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