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Assessment Resources

Principles of Good Practice

Creating Learning Outcomes

General Resources

Printed Resources

Angelo, T. A. & Cross, P. A. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Banta, T. W. & Associates. (2002). Building a Scholarship of Assessment. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Jankowski, N. A., Baker, G. R., Brown-Tess, K., & Montenegro, E. (Eds.) (2020). Student-Focused Learning and Assessment. Involving Students in the Learning Process in Higher Education. Peter Lang, New York.

Kuh, G. D., Ikenberry, S. O., Jankowski, N. A., Cain, T. R., Ewell, P. T., Hutchings, P., & Kinzie, J. (2015). Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Maki, P. L. (2010). Assessment for Learning: Building a Sustainable Commitment across the Institution. (2nd ed.). American Association for Higher Education, Sterling, VA.

Nichols, J. O., Nichols, K. W., & Associates. (2005). A Road Map for Improvement of Student Learning and Support Services Through Assessment. Agathon Press, New York.

Suskie, L. (2009). Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide (2nd Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco

Walvoord, B. E. (2004). Assessment Clear and Simple: A Practical Guide for Institutions, Departments, and General Education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Online Resources

Assignments & Rubrics



Assessment Terminology

A common language is needed in order to effectively communicate assessment processes and results to various stakeholders.

Program Learning Outcomes:

  • Represent what students are able to do at the conclusion of a program.
  • Are broader than course and co-curricular outcomes.
  • Cannot be accomplished in a single course or co-curricular activity.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  • Are achieved through course and/or co-curricular assignments and activities.
  • Are developed across curricular and co-curricular activities with a progression of being introduced, reinforced, and advanced.


  • Include assignments and course or co-curricular activities.
  • Assignments and activities may or may not be graded.
  • Can be used for assessment of student learning.

Measurable/Ascertainable Criteria

A program level outcome restated in measureable or observable terms. An indicator used to measure student mastery of a skill or concept.

Assessment Tool

The instrument used to collect assessment data, such as a test, assignment, or performance.

Assessment Vehicle

The place, environment, or venue within which an assessment takes place, such as a capstone course, senior seminar, or internship workplace.

Direct Assessment

Assessment that involves the observation of first-hand student artifacts, performance, or knowledge, such as performance, test results, or rubric scoring of student work.

Indirect Assessment

Assessment that involves the observation of student and others’ reports about student learning, such as on a survey or a focus group.

Assessment Cycle

A single iteration of assessment, usually an academic year beginning in the fall and culminating at the end of spring.

Additional terminology can be found in the NILOA Glossary: